Vitamins and Hormones : hormones and transport systems
In adult rats, however, this effect disappears and adult erythropoiesis takes place.
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It is now known that vitamin A and RA and metabolites are involved in some glands development as well as functions in adults. Indeed, one of the most critical roles of vitamin A in human health is its effect on thyroid function as simultaneous iodine and vitamin A deficiencies potentiate to affect thyroid function. To achieve adequate intake of these micronutrients, among others, is indeed a challenge in developing countries. Similarly, the role of vitamin A and metabolites is certainly important in the regulation of the HPA axis although the endocrine consequences on the whole population is more difficult to assess.
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Thanks to a better understanding of vitamin A and RA metabolites mechanisms of action through their various receptors some interesting pathways in normal or tumoural endocrine tissues have been uncovered. However, useful therapeutic use of agonists or antagonists of these pathways is not available yet. A use of retinoids in pituitary tumours especially corticotroph adenomas may be emerging.
Well-tolerated, clinically available retinoids used for skin or hematologic diseases, renders clinical studies comparing other medical options readily possible.
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The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of this review. This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Endocr Connect v. Endocr Connect. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Correspondence should be addressed to J B Corcuff; Email: rf. Received Jul 3; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Vitamin A retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. Keywords: vitamin A, retinol, hormones. Introduction Vitamin A retinol is a lipophilic micronutrient that is critical for embryo and child development 1 , 2.
Brief physiology of the retinoids Natural retinoids absorption Retinoids constitute the family of molecules that includes both naturally occurring compounds with vitamin A activity as well as synthetic analogues of retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoids cellular effects In tissues, retinol cellular uptake can depend on passive diffusion.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Vitamin A and the hypothalamo—pituitary—peripheral gland axes There are arguments for a role of retinoids in the development and function of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the peripheral glands they act upon. Vitamin A and the hypothalamo—pituitary—thyroid axis RA does not seem to be involved in thyroid organogenesis Vitamin A and thyroid C cells No information has been reported about a role of RA and calcitonin secretion by normal thyroid C cells.
Vitamin A and the hypothalamo—pituitary—gonads axis RA is a critical factor for the formation of the gonads in man and one of the major consequences of vitamin A deficiency apart from blindness is infertility 35 , Vitamin A and the somato-lactotroph axis RA probably plays a role not only in the differentiation of somatotrophs through pit-1 transcription factor 79 but also in the expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone GH-RH receptors in somatotrophs as there is a RARE in the promoter of GH-RH receptor gene Vitamin A and the pancreas RA receptor signalling is required in early pancreatic progenitor cells for pancreatic development Miscellaneous There are in vivo and in vitro arguments in animals reporting the effects of RA on renin or angiotensin production 96 , 97 , 98 , Conclusion It is now known that vitamin A and RA and metabolites are involved in some glands development as well as functions in adults.
Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of this review. Funding This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector. References 1. Vitamin A: a multifunctional tool for development.
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